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Argyle Diamond Mine Closure: What’s Next for the Sector in Australia?

The future of the Australian diamond sector is now heavily reliant on exploration, with firms vying to make another large discovery.

Click here to read part one of this article, which covers the closure of the Argyle diamond mine.

When the mining equipment permanently shut down at Western Australia’s Argyle mine in November 2020, the country’s diamond sector entered a transitional period.

As the world’s fourth largest diamond-producing asset shuttered, domestic output of the gems instantly declined by as much as 90 percent.

The future of the Australian diamond-mining sector is now heavily reliant on exploration, with several companies vying to discover another formidable source of rare diamonds.


“I believe Australia is still quite speculative for diamond exploration,” said diamond analyst Paul Zimnisky. “There have been exploration efforts in recent years that have been somewhat disappointing, but I think the upside offered is still quite intriguing.”

There are also two past-producing diamond mines that have become more interesting since Argyle’s closure: Ellendale and Merlin.

Both projects have previously failed to live up to their intended potential, but Australia’s new diamond landscape may breathe new life into these old assets — read on to learn more.

The Ellendale diamond mine

The Ellendale mine in West Kimberley once accounted for half of the world’s fancy yellow diamonds.

The Western Australian asset was in operation between 2002 and 2015, and produced 1.3 million carats during that period. After its closure, an 8.43 carat fancy yellow stone was unearthed in 2017 during exploration by Gibb River Diamonds (ASX:GIB).

The canary-coloured stone was one of the largest of its kind recovered in the country.

The high quality of Ellendale’s yellow diamonds drew the attention of global jewellery powerhouse Tiffany & Co. (NYSE:TIF) in 2009. Kimberley Diamonds, the former owner of the mine, signed a short-lived exclusive yellow diamond offtake deal with the renowned jewellery house.

In 2019, Bill Johnston, Western Australia’s minister for mines and petroleum, invited Gibb River and private explorer India Bore Diamond Holdings (IBDH) to apply for new tenements.

“It’s not going to happen overnight, but restarting mining operations at the former Ellendale mine will be a high point in the rejuvenation of diamond exploration and mining in the Kimberley,” Johnston said at the time. “It has taken 12 months to get to this point, but the State Government’s tendering process is highly confidential and very thorough, so it is pleasing to have the EOI process wrapped up.”

He went on to describe the tendering process as confidential and extremely thorough. The decision to invite the explorers came after a AU$230,000 governmental investment to rehabilitate the site.

The move was successful, and IBDH quickly discovered three natural fancy coloured yellow diamonds. While the recovery of yellow stones at Ellendale was hardly remarkable, these were indeed unique.

When exposed to ultraviolet light, the gems fluoresce purple. Fluorescence is extremely rare, occurring in only 25 to 35 percent of all the diamonds recovered globally; of those, most fluoresce blue.

Despite being beautiful, the golden stones are among the more affordable in the coloured diamond sector, ranging in price from US$2,500 per carat to over US$20,000.

Lower prices and limited output contributed to the former owner’s liquidation and the demise of Ellendale in 2015. But over the last decade the value of yellow diamonds has climbed 30 percent, making mining for the gems at Ellendale potentially more alluring and lucrative.

In late March 2021, Gibb River sold the Ellendale mine to Burgundy Diamond Mines (ASX:BDM) for AU$6.7 million and 4 million ordinary shares.

The Merlin diamond mine

Another asset that may be central to Australia’s diamond future is the Northern Territory’s Merlin mine.

The site birthed the nation’s largest diamond, a 104.73 carat rough white stone, in 2001. A 35 carat rough brown diamond and an extremely rare small blue diamond are also among the notable finds at Merlin.

Mining began at the site in 1998 and ran through 2003, with the property reopening briefly in 2016.

In that time, the project had several owners, including Rio Tinto (ASX:RIO,LSE:RIO,NYSE:RIO), as well as Ashton Mining and Merlin Diamonds (formerly North Australian Diamonds).

Over its brief lifespan, 500,000 carats of diamonds were recovered from Merlin, of which a large fraction were gem-quality stones. Merlin’s propensity for high-quality diamonds is reportedly unique.

“Sixty-five percent of production is gem-quality, and only 35 percent is classified as near-gem or industrial quality,” reads Mining Legacies’ overview of the project. “This compares to a worldwide average of just 20 percent gem-quality diamond production at diamond mines worldwide, and a mere 5 percent gem-quality production at Australia’s largest diamond mine, Argyle diamond mine.”

Ellendale and Merlin never gained the same fame as Argyle despite the fact that they produced more gem-quality diamonds combined.

“A number of small diamond ‘pipes’ with a much higher proportion of gem-quality diamond than Argyle have been mined at Merlin in the Northern Territory and Ellendale in the west Kimberley region, both of which are currently not in operation,” states Geoscience Australia.

The lower price point for yellow diamonds ultimately weighed on Ellendale’s growth and led to its closure. But Merlin faced another set of issues, predominately related to its last owner’s finances. That company, Merlin Diamonds, was officially delisted from the ASX in 2018.

In 2019, Deloitte was appointed as liquidator by a court following an investigation by the Australian Securities and Investments Commission.

A little over a month after Argyle was permanently closed, ASX-listed Lucapa Diamonds (ASX:LOM) expressed interest in the Merlin mine.

“Merlin is a multi-pit mine development opportunity with underground mining potential and is home to Australia’s largest recovered diamond of 104 carats,” notes a December company statement. “Lucapa is of the view that the tenements also have considerable exploration potential with a significant number of unresolved exploration targets.”

The acquisition would give the Africa-focused miner its first domestic project. The move could also usher in the next chapter in Australia’s diamond story.

“(Ellendale and Merlin) have had difficulty with operational profitability in recent years, however both mines can probably be looked at as an option on future Australian diamond prices,” said Zimnisky.

“(The projects) have produced some pretty unique diamonds, however as far as scale, both are much smaller than Argyle,” he added to the Investing News Network (INN). “Of course, Ellendale is known for the fancy yellows and the arrangement it had with Tiffany & Co.”

New deals with jewellers and even international mints may play an important role as the nation switches its diamond focus.

Global sector pivots in response to challenges

Australia’s transition comes at a time when the global diamond industry is also looking to offer enhanced digital experiences in response to the pandemic, as well as shifting demographics.

“Based on what I have seen, the oversupply problem of recent years has primarily been worked through, which makes me optimistic about the industry near term,” Zimnisky told INN. “Further, I think we could see a global spending spree in the second half of this year as the global economy begins to open up.”

The diamond analyst does have concerns, especially as stimulus programs and economic support wind down into 2022 to 2023. “It will come down to whether or not the stimulus actually stimulates sustainable productivity in the years post-pandemic,” he said.

This sentiment was echoed by diamond analyst Yaniv Marcus, who sees diamond miners acting cautiously from hereon out. “I think mining companies are being careful with how much production they are outputting,” he said. “They need to make sure there is enough demand.”

Don’t forget to follow us @INN_Australia for real-time news updates!

Securities Disclosure: I, Georgia Williams, hold no direct investment interest in any company mentioned in this article.

Editorial Disclosure: The Investing News Network does not guarantee the accuracy or thoroughness of the information reported in the interviews it conducts. The opinions expressed in these interviews do not reflect the opinions of the Investing News Network and do not constitute investment advice. All readers are encouraged to perform their own due diligence.

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There are many big Australian gold stocks, but these are the five top companies in the sector by market cap.

Australia is the fourth largest producer of gold worldwide, and this past year has brought ups and downs for the commodity. The precious metal hit its 2021 high point early on and fell soon after.

Lately, gold has been resting at a strong price of around US$1,800 per ounce, and it seems like it will exit the year that way. It may even be in for a serious price hike if inflationary pressures continue on their current trajectory.

Read on to learn more about Australia’s five top gold companies by market cap. All market cap and share price information was obtained on November 25, 2021, using TradingView's stock screener.


1. Newcrest Mining

Market cap: AU$19.54 billion; current share price: AU$24.14

Newcrest Mining (ASX:NCM) operates a portfolio of gold mines across Australia, Canada and Papua New Guinea. These include its New South Wales-based Cadia mine and its Western Australia-based Telfer and Havieron mines.

In November 2021, Newcrest agreed to purchase British Columbia-based Pretium Resources (TSX:PVG,NYSE:PVG) for C$3.5 billion, marking the company’s expansion into Western Canada.

2. Kirkland Lake Gold

Market cap: AU$14.57 billion; current share price: AU$54.99

Kirkland Lake Gold (ASX:KLA) has mining operations in Australia and Canada, both of which are low-risk, gold-rich countries. The company’s Fosterville mine is based in Victoria, Australia, and as of December 31, 2018, its mineral reserves stood at 2.7 million ounces. It produced 640,467 ounces in 2020.

In September 2021, Kirkland Lake Gold and Agnico Eagle Mines (TSX:AEM,NYSE:AEM), a Canadian gold miner, announced a “merger of equals." The new company will go by the name Agnico Eagle Mines, and the companies expect the transaction to close in late 2021 or early 2022.

3. AngloGold Ashanti

Market cap: AU$12.43 billion; current share price: AU$5.83

AngloGold Ashanti (ASX:AGG) is a global gold miner formed in 2004. It has two Australia-based operations, both of which are based in Western Australia’s northeastern goldfields: Sunrise Dam and Tropicana. Sunrise Dam is 100 percent owned, while Tropicana is 70 percent owned, with the remaining 30 percent owned by Regis Resources (ASX:RRL,OTC Pink:RGRNF). In 2020, these operations produced 554,000 ounces of gold.

In Q3 2021, AngloGold Ashanti reported total gold production of 613,000 ounces at a total cash cost of US$927 per ounce. This represents a 5 percent quarter-over-quarter increase in production, though a year-to-date decrease.

4. Northern Star Resources

Market cap: AU$11.39 billion; current share price: AU$9.66

Northern Star Resources (ASX:NST) is an Australian gold-mining company with projects throughout Western Australia and North America at its Kalgoorlie, Yandal and Pogo production centres. In the 2021 fiscal year, Northern Star experienced a 40 percent revenue increase and a 10 percent cash earnings hike.

In late November 2021, Northern Star announced an agreement to buy Newmont Australia’s power business for US$95 million. The company paid US$25 million for the option to purchase this business, an opportunity it was given through its recent 50 percent acquisition of Kalgoorlie Consolidated Gold Mines.

5. Evolution Mining

Market cap: AU$7.53 billion; current share price: AU$4.12

Australian gold miner Evolution Mining (ASX:EVN) has projects throughout New South Wales, Queensland and Western Australia, as well as in Ontario, Canada. Evolution Mining produced 680,788 ounces of gold in the 2021 fiscal year at an all-in sustaining cost of AU$1,215 per ounce.

In 2019, Evolution Mining became one of only two Australian gold companies to be included in the Dow Jones Sustainability Index (INDEXDJX:W1SGI). In 2020 and 2021, the company made several strategic acquisitions and divestments, including its high-value purchases of the Red Lake and the Kundana operations.

This is an updated version of an article originally published by the Investing News Network in 2018.

Don’t forget to follow us @INN_Australia for real-time updates!

Securities Disclosure: I, Isabel Armiento, hold no direct investment interest in any company mentioned in this article.

What are the largest Australian copper companies? These five ASX copper stocks are the biggest on the exchange by market cap.

Last year, pandemic restrictions forced copper mines to shut down across the world, driving down global production and causing the 10 largest copper-mining companies to suffer dramatic losses.

But in 2021, copper hit an all-time high of US$10,700 per tonne, and stayed over US$9,000 for much of the year.

The three top copper-producing countries globally are Chile, Peru and China, with Australia coming in at number six. Still, there are plenty of untapped resources in the land down under, and Australia is making a name for itself as an up-and-coming producer of this important base metal.


Read on to learn more about the top five Australian copper companies on the ASX, ranked by market cap. All market cap and share price information was obtained on November 26, 2021, from TradingView.

1. BHP

Market cap: AU$192.56 billion; current share price: AU$38.03

BHP (ASX:BHP) is a top global producer of copper, nickel, potash, iron ore and metallurgical coal, with copper production centralised at its South Australia-based Olympic Dam mine.

The company, whose headquarters are in Melbourne, Australia, emphasises copper’s function in renewable energy systems and the metal’s critical role in reducing carbon dioxide emissions.

Recently, BHP has focused its attention on its energy assets. In late November, the company merged its oil and gas portfolio with Woodside Petroleum, a deal that was originally struck in August of the same year. On the mineral side of its operations, BHP was looking to acquire Noront Resources (TSXV:NOT,OTC Pink:NOSOF), a Canada-based nickel, copper, chrome and platinum company, but decided not to match a superior offer.

2. OZ Minerals 

Market cap: AU$8.77 billion; current share price: AU$25.70

OZ Minerals (ASX:OZL) is a South Australia-based copper-mining company founded in 2008. Its operations include the Carrapateena project, where construction was completed in 2019, and the upcoming Malu underground mine, which was commissioned in 2015.

In a November press release, OZ Minerals reported a year-to-date 5 percent increase in group ore reserve copper metal tonnes. In its third quarter results, the company reported guidance of between 120,000 and 145,000 tonnes of copper for the year.

3. Sandfire Resources

Market cap: AU$2.59 billion; current share price: AU$6.11

Sandfire Resources (ASX:SFR) owns 7,189 square kilometres in the Bryah Basin region of Western Australia, including its DeGrussa and Monty operations. Both of these are 100 percent owned and produce copper and gold.

The company released its third quarter results in October, reporting total copper production of 15,946 tonnes. Sandfire expects output of between 64,000 and 68,000 tonnes of copper in 2022.

4. 29Metals

Market cap: AU$1.29 billion; current share price: AU$2.63

Australia-based mining company 29Metals (ASX:29M) has the Golden Grove mine in Western Australia and the Capricorn copper mine in Queensland, along with several promising new growth opportunities lined up. 29Metals focuses on copper production, though it also mines for zinc, gold and silver.

According to an October release from the company, production was weaker than expected at Golden Grove during the September quarter. However, the asset's quarter-on-quarter decline of about 10 percent was largely offset by a strong performance at Capricorn.

5. Copper Mountain Mining

Market cap: AU$804.96 million; current share price: AU$3.81

Copper Mountain Mining (ASX:C6C) is a Canadian and Australian copper miner, with its flagship Copper Mountain operation in British Columbia, Canada, and its Eva and Cameron copper projects in Queensland, Australia.

In the third quarter, Copper Mountain Mining reported total output of 22.4 million pounds of copper at its Copper Mountain mine, representing a 12.1 percent quarter-over-quarter decline in production. The company still reported positive cash flow, with strong construction and exploration gains made at its Eva and Cameron projects.

This is an updated version of an article first published by the Investing News Network in 2018.

Don’t forget to follow us @INN_Australia for real-time updates!

Securities Disclosure: I, Isabel Armiento, hold no direct investment interest in any company mentioned in this article.