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Blackstone Signs MOU with Arca: Seizing Carbon Capture Opportunity
- Blackstone and Arca sign MOU to further investigate the carbon capture potential at Ta Khoa Project via carbon mineralisation and explore opportunities to utilise Arca’s carbon capture technologies within the Project,
- Studies indicate that passive CO2 capture is possible at a scale of kilo-tonnes of CO2 per year from the Project’s mine waste. This is significant compared to similar projects,
- In July 2023 the European Union Council declared from 18 February 2025, every industrial or electric vehicle battery on the EU market with a capacity of over 2 kWh will require a battery passport containing information on items including carbon footprint declaration1,
- Life Cycle Analysis has shown the Project is capable to produce a nickel product with one of the lowest carbon footprints in the industry, with identified pathways to reduce the carbon footprint further with additional studies,
- Carbon mineralisation is one technology being considered to further reduce the Project’s carbon footprint.
Arca is developing a portfolio of carbon capture technologies to measure, maximise and monetise the carbon mineralisation potential of mine waste. Using its proprietary intellectual property, Arca helps its partners in the minerals industry to transform mine waste into an industrial-scale carbon sink, advancing the future of carbon-negative mining.
Blackstone continues its pursuit to be one of the greenest nickel producers in the world. Successful implementation of Arca’s proprietary intellectual property will enable Blackstone to further reduce the Company’s Ta Khoa Project’s (“TKP”) carbon footprint, allowing Blackstone to realise its Green Nickel™ vision and position the Company to meet the growing global demand for low carbon intensity battery raw materials.
Under the MOU, Arca and Blackstone agree to collaborate on the following:
- Blackstone and Arca will enter non-exclusive strategic relationship to further investigate the carbon capture potential at TKP via carbon mineralisation,
- Arca will expand on previous characterisation work which has indicated the Ta Khoa Project contains minerals such as brucite, known to be highly reactive to CO2 in air,
- Data collected from this engagement will inform future design considerations to maximise carbon mineralisation, further reducing TKP’s carbon footprint and providing a pathway to carbon-negative mining.
Figure 1: Arca scientists demonstrate how carbon dioxide mineralisation rates are measured on mine tailings. Photo: Taku River Tingit First Nation traditional territory, British Columbia, Canada
Significance of the Green Nickel™ strategy
Lower carbon emissions intensity has potential to add value to the Company and differentiate it from competitors in relation to its product offering. There is increasing global pressure on disclosing carbon emissions intensity within battery supply chains and their lifecycle. From 18 February 2025, every industrial or electric vehicle (“EV”) battery on the EU market with a capacity of over 2 kWh will require a battery passport (refer to https://www.circulor.com/battery-passport), containing information on items including a carbon footprint declaration as well as human rights and battery supply chain due diligence obligations throughout the battery value chain2.
As an example, Polestar, the Swedish electric performance car brand, is setting the trend to provide transparency throughout the automotive industry by working with Circulor, a supply chain technology provider. With the partnership, Polestar and Circulor will track a wide range of raw materials. Consumers will be able to follow the journey thanks to Polestar’s Product Sustainability Declaration, which discloses carbon footprint and traced risk materials through labelling on the company website and in Polestar Spaces, setting a unique transparency precedent for the industry and an ambitious standard for the carbon tracking scheme within the battery passport3.
It is expected that this legislative environment will support and incentivise battery manufacturers to source raw materials from suppliers with demonstrated lower carbon emissions intensity in their supply chains, supporting demand and pricing for Ta Khoa Project’s nickel products.
This article includes content from Blackstone Minerals Limited, licensed for the purpose of publishing on Investing News Australia. This article does not constitute financial product advice. It is your responsibility to perform proper due diligence before acting upon any information provided here. Please refer to our full disclaimer here.
As the world moves closer to a sustainable net-zero future, the need for battery metals continues to mount, and nickel may soon be among the metals to see a supply crunch. Though its roots are in the stainless steel sector, it's also a critical component of lithium-ion batteries.
Given that many nations are aiming to replace combustion vehicles with electric cars by 2030, the metal is already experiencing a massive spike in demand. Benchmark Minerals expects the need for battery-grade nickel will increase by roughly 950 percent by 2040.
It's imperative to ramp up global nickel production but the resource sector, for its part, must do so with a much-reduced carbon footprint in order to influence the sustainability of the entire value chain. Blackstone Minerals (ASX:BSX, OTC:BLSTF) recognizes this. As a vertically integrated producer of low-cost, low-carbon nickel, the company aims to become a leading source of low CO2 emission nickel sulphide. Its flagship Ta Khoa Project in Vietnam is representative of that goal.
With over 20 active mines and a burgeoning technology sector, Vietnam is on the road to becoming a hub of electric vehicle production and innovation, with low labor costs and regulated electricity pricing further driving its growth. Steadily increasing foreign direct investment in the region is indicative of this, growing from US$1.3 billion in 2000 to US$15.66 billion in 2021.
Blackstone is uniquely-positioned to take advantage of this thanks to two factors. US President Joe Biden's Inflation Reduction Act, which came into force in August 2022, represents the largest investment into climate action in United States’ history. A similar initiative is rolling out in the European Union (EU), which maintains a Free Trade Agreement with Vietnam — something multiple partners of the company have expressed interest in.
- The global nickel market is currently entering a structural deficit, with demand expected to grow 950 percent by 2040.
- Blackstone Minerals is well-positioned to address this deficit as a vertically integrated producer of low-cost, low-carbon nickel.
- Blackstone's flagship project Ta Khoa is a brownfield project situated in Vietnam, one of the lowest capital cost countries in the world and an emerging hub for the electric vehicle market with vast reserves of nickel.
- Vietnam is an increasingly attractive region for investment with direct foreign investments that grew from $1.3 billion in 2000 to $15.6 billion in 2020.
- The Ta Khoa project also has infrastructure advantages, via the existing Ban Phuc mine, and processing facilities, access to low-cost and underutilized hydroelectricity, a trained labor force and support from the local government.
- Blackstone Minerals’ downstream pre-feasibility study confirms a technically and economically robust hydrometallurgical refining process to upgrade nickel sulphide concentrate to produce battery-grade nickel
- Blackstone’s key nickel and cobalt feed stocks for the Ta Khoa Refinery Pilot program were delivered to the metallurgical laboratory in Western Australia as of April 2022.
Blackstone holds a 90 percent interest in the Ta Khoa Nickel-Copper-PGE Project, located 160 kilometers west of Hanoi in the Son La Province of Vietnam. It includes an existing modern nickel mine built to Australian Standards, which is currently under care and maintenance. The Ban Phuc nickel mine successfully operated as a mechanized underground nickel mine from 2013 to 2016.
Blackstone intends to complement the existing mine through the installation of a large concentrator, refinery and precursor facility, supporting integrated on-site production of nickel, cobalt and manganese precursor products for the Asia-Pacific market. One of Blackstone's key Research and Development objectives with Ta Khoa is to develop a flowsheet that will support this production.
To fulfill this goal, Blackstone is focusing on a partnership model, collaborating with groups committed to sustainable mining. It is also working to minimize its carbon footprint and implement a vertically integrated supply chain.
In addition to the early development of the King Snake and Ban Chang Massive Sulphide deposits, Blackstone plans to produce crystal nickel and cobalt sulphide intermediate products. Staged development of the refinery, meanwhile, predicts an initial train capacity of 200,000 tonnes annually in the first year, with a planned expansion to 400,000 by the second.
The mine is expected to begin production in 2025 then ramp up to 8 million tons per annum (Mtpa) of nickel sulphide by 2027. Pilot Plant testing and definitive feasibility studies are currently underway, as well. Five groups visited the project in 2022 as part of the partnership due diligence process, accompanied by meetings with government representatives, Austrade, Australian department of foreign affairs and trade, financial institutions and other important stakeholders
- Multiple Massive Sulphide Deposits: The Ta Khoa project features several incredibly promising deposits including King Snake (up to 4.3 percent nickel and 18.2 grams per ton (g/t) PGE), Sui Phong (2.95 meters @ 2.42 percent nickel, 0.52 percent copper, 0.06 percent cobalt and 0.05 g/t PGE), and Ban Chang. The project is also the site of the Ban Phuc nickel mine, which was operated from 2013 to 2016 by Asia Mineral Resources, along with several exploration targets that have yet to be tested.
- Experienced Leadership: Internally, Blackstone’s owners’ team brings over 50 years of experience in leadership roles at major nickel mines and refineries globally. This experience has been complemented by ALS Group, Wood, Future Battery Industries CRC, Curtin University and the Electric Mining Consortium.
- Large Reserve and Mining Inventory: The entirety of Ta Khoa is estimated to contain probable reserves of 48.7 Mt at 0.43 percent nickel for 210 kilotons (kt) of nickel and a mining inventory of 64.5 Mt at 0.41 percent nickel for 265 kt nickel. This excludes Ban Khoa and other developing prospects.
- A Long-lived Project: The Ta Khoa mine is expected to produce a yearly average of 18 kt of annual nickel concentrate over its ten-year lifespan. Blackstone believes the refinery can potentially extend its life past ten years.
- An Established Mining Operation: Existing infrastructure onsite includes a 450 ktpa Mill and mining camp. The mine will also benefit from a highly supportive community and favorable government legislation — Blackstone is committed to collaborating with community stakeholders in the project's development.
- Feed Flexibility: Ta Khoa's refinery will offer multiple feed options, including nickel concentrate, mixed hydroxide precipitate, nickel matte and black mass. This flexibility greatly improves the security and greatly reduces the risk of the project overall.
- Valued Partnerships: Blackstone is collaborating with multiple industry leaders and groups in the development of Ta Khoa
- Compelling Pre-feasibility Study: The financial outcomes of a base case pre-feasibility study on the project are promising. Based on a conservative NCM811 precursor price forecast, Ta Khoa displays an exceptional internal return rate on capital invested.
- Integrated Vertical Strategy: Blackstone is constructing both the Ta Khoa mine and refinery against a highly supportive ESG, macroeconomic and fiscal backdrop. This along with Ta Khoa's low capital intensity gives the company a significant advantage over competitors. Said low intensity is the result of multiple factors, including competitive labor costs, favorable regulations and low-cost renewable hydroelectric power.
- A Leader in Low Emissions: Independent assessments from Digbee, Minviro and Circulor, alongside an audit from the Nickel Institute, has confirmed that Ta Khoa will be the lowest-emitting flowsheet in the industry, at 9.8 kilograms of CO2 per kilogram of precursor with opportunities for even further reduction.
- Promising Pilots: With the support of ALS and process engineering partner Wood, Blackstone recently completed a 12-month programme of work that developed a scaled version of its concentrate to sulphate flowsheet. The refinery, which processed in excess of 9 tonnes of concentrate and MHP, successfully achieved battery-grade nickel sulphate of 99.95 percent, with a nickel recovery rate of 97 percent.
- Current Roadmap: Blackstone's next priority is to complete a series of definitive feasibility studies. Once those are complete, it will focus on fully integrating the mine into the electric vehicle consumer supply chain and finalizing its refining partnership structure.
The Gold Bridge Project is located approximately 200 kilometers northwest of Vancouver, BC. It comprises 365 square kilometers of 100 percent Blackstone-owned mining claims located in the Cordilleran Terranes of BC. It includes several, high-grade hydrothermal gold, cobalt, nickel and copper deposits and targets the historic Little Gem and Jewel mines.
- Significant Potential: Blackstone's geological model for the Jewel mine suggests it may have a similar geological setting to the world-class Bou-Azzer primary cobalt district in Morocco. There is potential for multiple similar deposits throughout the project.
- Favorably Located Anomalies: Having completed an extensive maiden exploration program, Blackstone has identified multiple large-scale IP anomalies at Little Gem, Erebor, Jewel and Roxey.
- A Nascent Venture: Blackstone is currently actively seeking joint venture partners for the Gold Bridge project.
Hamish Halliday - Non-executive Chairman
Hamish Halliday is a geologist with over 20 years of corporate and technical experience. He is also the founder of Adamus Resources Limited, a AU$3 million float which became a multimillion-ounce emerging gold producer.
Scott Williamson - Managing Director
Scott Williamson is a mining engineer with a commerce degree from the West Australian School of Mines and Curtin University. He has over 10 years experience in technical and corporate roles in the mining and finance sectors.
Dr. Frank Bierlein - Non-executive Director
Dr. Frank Bierlein is a geologist with 30 years of technical and corporate experience, focusing on grassroots to mine-stage mineral exploration, target generation, project management and oversight, due diligence studies, mineral prospectivity analysis, metallogenic framework studies and mineral resources market and investment analysis.
Alison Gaines - Non-executive Director
Alison Gaines has over 20 years of experience as a director in Australia and internationally. She has experience in the roles of board chair and board committee chair, particularly remuneration and nomination and governance committees. She is also the managing director of Gaines Advisory P/L and was recently global CEO of international search and board consulting firm Gerard Daniels, with a significant mining and energy practice.
Gaines has a Bachelor of Laws and a Bachelor of Arts (hons) from the University of Western Australia, a Graduate Diploma Legal Practice from Australian National University and is an honorary doctorate of the University and Master of Arts (Public Policy) from Murdoch University. She is a fellow of the Australian Institute of Company Directors and holds the INSEAD certificate in corporate governance. She currently holds positions as the governor of the College of Law Ltd and non-executive director of Tura New Music Ltd.
Dan Lougher - Non-executive Director
Daniel Lougher’s career spans more than 40 years involving a range of exploration, feasibility, development, operations and corporate roles with Australian and international mining companies including a period of eighteen years spent in Africa with BHP Billiton, Impala Plats, Anglo American and Genmin. He was the managing director and chief executive officer of the successful Australian nickel miner Western Areas Ltd until its takeover by Independence Group.
Lougher also holds a first class mine manager’s certificate of competency (WA) and is a fellow of the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (AusIMM). Lougher is the chair of the company’s technical committee and nomination committee.
Jamie Byrde - CFO and Company Secretary
Jamie Byrde has over 16 year's experience in corporate advisory, public and private company management since commencing his career with big four and mid-tier chartered accounting firms positions. Byrde specializes in financial management, ASX and ASIC compliance and corporate governance of mineral and resource focused public companies. He is also currently company secretary for Venture Minerals Limited.
Dr. Stuart Owen - Executive
Dr. Stuart Owen holds a Bsc and PhD in geology with over 20 years of experience in mineral exploration. He was senior geologist in the team that discovered the Paulsens Mine (+1Moz) and as an exploration manager at Adamus discovered the Southern Ashanti Gold deposits (+2Moz). Finally, at Venture, he discovered the Mt Lindsay Tin-Tungsten-Magnetite deposits.
Tessa Kutscher - Executive
Tessa Kutscher is an executive with more than 20 years’ experience in working with C-Level executive teams in the fields of business strategy, business planning/optimisation and change management. After starting her career in Germany, she has worked internationally across different industries, such as mining, finance, tourism and tertiary education.
Kutscher holds a master’s degree in literature, linguistics and political science from the University of Bonn, Germany and a master’s degree in teaching from Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich.
Andrew Strickland - Executive
Andrew Strickland is an experienced study and project manager, a fellow of the Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, University of WA MBA graduate, with undergraduate degrees in chemical engineering and extractive metallurgy from Curtin and WASM.
Before joining Blackstone, Strickland was a senior study manager for GR Engineering Services where he was responsible for delivering a series of scoping, PFS and DFS studies for both Australian and international projects. Over his career, he has held a variety of project development roles across both junior to mid-tier developers (including Straits Resources Ltd, Perseus Mining Ltd and Tiger Resources Ltd) and major multi-operation producers (South32).
Graham Rigo - Executive
Graham Rigo is an experienced study manager with over a decade of on-site production experience, holding undergraduate degrees in chemical engineering and finance from Curtin University, WA.
Before joining Blackstone, Rigo was a study manager for Ausenco where he was responsible for delivering a series of scoping, PFS and DFS studies for both Australian and international projects over a range of different commodities.
Rigo has over 11 years of site experience in nickel and cobalt hydromet production experience, in supervisory/superintendent level roles as well as process engineers experience.