Big Star Energy Ltd is pleased to announce that it has acquired 21,824 gross acres in 63 new leases in Colorado, USA at the State land auction.

Big Star Energy Ltd (“Big Star” or the “Company”) (ASX:BNL) is pleased to announce that it has acquired 21,824 gross (21,824 net) acres in 63 new leases in Colorado, USA at the State land auction.

Big Star Managing Director, Joanne Kendrick, commented “This truly is a transformational moment for the Company. These acquisitions at the State land auction, in addition to our existing acreage, bring us to 27,104 gross (23,294 net) acres across 9 prospects, significantly exceeding our targets and making us, by far, the dominant player in this highly prospective area.

“Encouragingly, we now have 3 prospects where our leases include locations sampled during our recent soil gas survey. All samples collected on the land that we have now leased returned positive helium readings of between 10-50% above normal atmospheric levels confirming an active helium system in the area.

“Following our successful helium acreage acquisition, I am excited to make a start on our next objective. We plan to design and permit a 5-well drilling programme early next year whilst we consolidate our acreage over these prospects. With success in our proposed drilling campaign, any discovered high-concentration helium accumulation would potentially be developed using a pressure swing adsorption plant. A standard-size PSA plant can process 2mmcf/day of raw gas (with 5-10% helium) to a saleable product stream with 98%+ helium concentration and requires between 5,000-10,000 acres to fill to capacity.”

big star figure 1

Figure 1 : Prospects and Leads Portfolio in Las Animas, Colorado

Big Star’s prospects and leads ranking has been driven by our regional and local structural mapping, proximity to historic high-concentration helium wells and the active helium systems proven by our proprietary regional soil gas survey completed earlier this year. Continued integration of proprietary geophysical and helium soil gas survey data into the geologic model over the last two months has resulted in improved delineation and greater confidence in prospect sizes and ranking. Notably, the areal extent of Enterprise has increased significantly as a result of this latest work.

The current leased acreage position over 9 of Big Star’s prospects is described in Table 1 below. Acreage over the previously leased Enterprise has increased by over 160% and 7 new prospects now have substantial leasing as a result of the State auction acquisitions. This includes 2 prospects (in addition to Enterprise) where soil gas samples were collected from currently leased areas and returned positive helium readings.

big star table 1

Table 1 : Summary of Prospects with Leasing

The new leases are for an initial term of 5 years with the right to request an extension of 1 year and an annual rental payment of US$2.50/acre payable in advance. In the event that Big Star successfully produces helium or other products from the lease area, a 20% royalty will be payable to the State of Colorado and the lease term will be extended indefinitely until production ceases.

The leases do not include any minimum work commitments. The consideration for the new leases is US$73,946 comprising the first year’s rental of US$54,560 and lease bonuses, application and other fees of US$19,386. The Company is the only working interest owner in the leases.

Further details of the new leases are set out in Appendix A. The new leases include 4 samples obtained during the regional gas survey referred to in the Company’s announcement of 19 September 2019. These are described in Appendix B.

For further details in relation to oil and gas leases in the US see the Company’s announcement of 19 September 2019.

For further information, please contact:

Joanne Kendrick
Managing Director info@bigstarenergy.com.au

About Big Star:

Big Star Energy Ltd (ASX:BNL) is an independent oil and gas exploration and production company, headquartered in Australia, with operations and exploration in North America. Big Star’s strategy is to provide its shareholders with exposure to multiple high-value helium projects and conventional oil assets in North America. For further information please visit the Company’s website at www.bigstarenergy.com.au

About Helium:

Helium is a unique industrial gas that exhibits characteristics both of a bulk, commodity gas and of a high value specialty gas and is considered a “high tech” strategic element. Due to its unique chemical and physical qualities, helium is a vital element in the manufacture of MRIs and semiconductors and is critical for fibre optic cable manufacturing, hard disc manufacture and cooling, space exploration, rocketry, lifting and high-level science. There is no way of manufacturing helium artificially and most of the world’s reserves have been derived as a by-product of the extraction of natural hydrocarbon gas.

Appendix A: New Leases

big star appendix a

big star appendix a

big star appendix b

Appendix B: Soil Gas Survey Samples

big star table 2

Table 1, Las Animas Leases Soil Gas Samples

Notes

  1. Falcon soil gas samples taken from leased areas 27 and 28 in Appendix A.
  2. Galactica soil gas samples taken from leased areas 11 and 48 in Appendix A.
  3. Enterprise: see the announcement of 19 September 2019.

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WHAT'S IN STORE FOR THE RESOURCE SECTOR IN 2022?

The Investing News Network (INN) spoke with analysts, market watchers and insiders about which trends will impact this sector in the year ahead.
✓ Trends   ✓ Forecasts    ✓ Top Stocks



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Rio Tinto Iron Ore Chief Executive, Simon Trott and Rio Tinto Managing Director of Port, Rail and Core Services, Richard Cohen, joined community members, local businesses and representatives from local government to celebrate the official opening of its new community ‘Hub’ in Karratha. Located on Ngarluma country in the heart of Karratha’s CBD, the new Rio Tinto Karratha Hub will make it easier for local …

Rio Tinto Iron Ore Chief Executive, Simon Trott and Rio Tinto Managing Director of Port, Rail and Core Services, Richard Cohen, joined community members, local businesses and representatives from local government to celebrate the official opening of its new community ‘Hub’ in Karratha.

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Australia is rich in gold, and is home to many major mines. Here's a look at the top Australian gold mines flush with the yellow metal.

With Australia earning more accolades within the gold space and the price of gold hitting record highs in the last two years, investors may want to find out more about gold mines in the country.

Currently the second-largest gold-producing country in the world, Australia is home to top producers and gold mines.

Read on for a breakdown of the Australian gold market, as well as the largest gold mines that can be found throughout the area.


The region of Australia

As previously mentioned, Australia is currently the second-largest gold-producing country across the globe.

Global gold consumption is expected to rise annually at a rate of 5.7 percent until 2023, when it’s expected to reach 4,535 tonnes. Australia’s continued expansion projects and new developments in the gold sector will improve output and help the country maintain its position as a key player in the gold production market.

One of the more prolific gold mining areas in Australia is Western Australia.

Recent exploration activity in the Pilbara region of Western Australia has renewed interest and helped increase the country’s consistent gold output. While the Pilbara region is typically known as one of the world’s largest producers of iron ore, the region is currently in the midst of a small gold rush thanks to a major discovery in 2017 by Novo Resources (TSXV:NVO,OTCQX:NSRPF) and Artemis Resources (ASX:ARV,OTCQB:ARTTF).

In fact, gold was the second largest commodity in Western Australia by value in 2020 to 2021, behind iron ore, at a record of AU$17.3 billion in sales in 2020. In 2021, the metal saw sales of AU$16 million in the state.

The Fraser Institute also named Western Australia one of the best mining jurisdictions in the world, coming in first in 2021. The area has attracted major miners like Rio Tinto (ASX:RIO,LSE:RIO,NYSE:RIO) and BHP (ASX:BHP,NYSE:BHP,LSE:BLT) to the region. Covering more than half a million square kilometres (km), Western Australia’s Pilbara is one of the most resource-rich regions in the state.

Western Australia itself represents close to 60 percent of the country’s total gold output and some geologists have compared the geology of the Pilbara Craton with South Africa’s Kaapvaal Craton and Witwatersrand Basin. Witwatersrand is home to the Earth’s largest known gold reserves and is responsible for over 40 percent of worldwide gold production. Both the Pilbara and Witwatersrand are similar in age and composition, sitting on top of the Archean granite-greenstone basement. The Pilbara area hosts numerous small mesothermal gold deposits containing conglomerate gold — mineralization known to hold large, high-grade gold nuggets.

What are the top Australian gold mines?

Below is a guided tour of the top 10 largest gold mines in Australia in terms of gold output, according to the Aurum Analytics quarterly report on Australian and New Zealand gold operations.

1. Cadia Valley

Owned and operated by Newcrest (ASX:NCM,OTC Pink:NCMGF), Cadia is officially the biggest mine in Australia in terms of production. During the second quarter of 2021, the asset had an output of 194,757 ounces of gold.

The mine is made up of the Cadia East underground panel cave mine and the Ridgeway underground mine (currently in care and maintenance), which produce gold doré bars from a gravity circuit and gold-rich copper concentrates from a flotation circuit.

In October of 2019, the company announced approval of the Cadia expansion project, bringing it to the execution phase. This stage involves beginning development for the next cave (PC2-3). In December 2021, the company received approval to expand production to 35 million tonnes a year.

2. Boddington

Newmont (TSX:NGT,NYSE:NEM) became the sole owner of this open-pit mine in 2009.

The mine is located 16 kilometres from Boddington, Australia, and has an annual gold production of 709,000 attributable ounces. The mine is Western Australia’s biggest gold producer. In 2020, the asset produced 670,000 ounces of the yellow metal.

In addition to gold, the mine also produces copper, and at the end of 2020, it provided an output of 56 million attributable pounds of the base metal.

In 2021, the company announced that Boddington would have the industry’s first autonomous haulage fleet.

3. Fosterville

Fosterville is a high-grade, low-cost underground gold mine located in the state of Victoria, Australia. The Fosterville mine features growing gold production at increasingly high grades, as well as extensive in-mine and district scale exploration potential.

The mine has been operational since 1989, with a lifetime production of over 16 million ounces of gold. Additionally, in terms of scale, it is Australia’s largest mine and its pits encompass more than 5 square kilometres. It’s also one of the lowest cost gold mines in the world.

The asset, which is owned by Agnico Eagle Mines (TSX:AEM,NYSE:AEM), is the third-largest gold-producing mine in Australia, producing an impressive 157,993 ounces in Q2 2021.

4. KCGM

Northern Star (ASX:NST,OTC Pink:NESRF) owns Kalgoorlie Consolidated Gold Mines (KCGM), which includes the Fimiston open pit, Mt Charlotte underground mine and Fimiston and Gidji processing plants.

Northern Star refers to the Fimiston open pit as a super pit because it has produced more than 50 million ounces of gold in the last 30 years.

The asset is located in the legendary Golden Mile, which was once reputed to be the richest square mile on earth. When fully developed, Kalgoorlie will be 3.6 kilometres long, 1.6 kilometres wide and up to 650 metres deep.

KCGM Operations had previously been joint-owned by Barrick Gold (TSX:ABX) and Newmont until both companies sold their interests, and the operations were handed entirely to Northern Star in June 2021.

5. Telfer

Another mine owned by Newcrest, Telfer is located in the eastern Pilbara and is one of the oldest in Australia. Between the years 1975 and 2000, the asset produced approximately 6 million ounces of gold until operations were suspended due to high operating costs.

Fortunately, production was able to restart in 2004, and the mine has since produced over 5 million ounces, with 416,000 ounces of gold in the 2021 financial year alone. The mine also produces copper, with an output of 16 tonnes in 2019.

In 2015, the company signed a land use agreement with the Martu people, which enabled work at the mine to continue in exchange for the Martu receiving AU$18 million over the course of five years with the addition of a further revenue-sharing agreement.

6. Tanami

Tanami has been fully owned and operated by Newmont since 2002, and it is located in the remote Tanami Desert of Australia. Additionally, both the mine and the plant are located on Aboriginal freehold land that is owned by the Warlpiri people and managed on their behalf by the Central Desert Aboriginal Lands Trust.

Tanami is a fly-in, fly-out operation in one of Australia’s most remote locations. The asset is 270 kilometres away from its closest neighbours, the remote Aboriginal community of Yuendumu. In 2020, Tanami produced 495,000 ounces of gold and reported 5.9 million ounces of gold reserves.

The Tanami Expansion 2 is currently underway to secure its future, potentially extending the mine life to 2040 and increasing annual gold production by an approximate 150 to 200 thousand ounces.

7. St. Ives

Owned and operated by Gold Fields (NYSE:GFI,JSE:GFI), St. Ives is both an open pit and underground mine, with two main open pits, and three underground mines.

In one of Gold Fields’ latest quarterly reports, it was revealed that St. Ives produced 393 tonnes of the yellow metal in 2021, up 2 percent from 385 tonnes in 2020.

8. Tropicana

Tropicana is co-owned by AngloGold Ashanti (ASX:AGG,NYSE:AU,OTC Pink:AULGF), which owns 70 percent, and Regis Resources (ASX:RRL), which owns the remaining 30 percent.

The mine spans 3,600 square kilometres, stretching over close to 160 kilometres in strike length along the Yilgarn Craton and Fraser Range mobile belt collision zone. The regional geology is dominated by granitoid rocks; it is a rare example of a large gold deposit within high grade metamorphic rocks that have undergone widespread recrystallisation and melting.

In 2021, Tropicana produced 265,000 ounces of gold with an all-in sustaining cost of AU$1,326 per ounce.

9. Jundee

Jundee is located in the increasingly sought-after Western Australia region and is owned by Northern Star after the miner purchased it from Newmont in 2014 for AU$82.5 million.

The project is well-known due to the fact that it solely uses underground mining and not the often utilized open pit mining. Jundee produces around 1.8 million tonnes of ore per year.

Most recently, the asset produced 83,562 ounces of gold in Q2 2021.

10. South Kalgoorlie Operations

The South Kalgoorlie Operations were acquired by Northern Star (ASX:NST,OTC Pink:NESRF) in 2018.

In the second quarter of 2021, the South Kalgoorlie Oerations produced 76,175 ounces of the precious metal.

How can you invest in Australian gold stocks?

Like all publicly listed stocks, gold companies issue shares that are available for investors to trade. When you purchase shares of a gold stock, you are essentially purchasing a stake in the company, making an investment with financial returns or losses from its profits.

There are two main ways that an investor can invest in gold mining stocks. The first way is when market participants purchase through a major mining company; the other way of trading on the stock market is by investing in a gold mining stock through a junior miner (a small cap stock).

Although no gold stock investing is 100 percent foolproof, backing a successful mining company in the precious metals space can alleviate some of the stress of a down stock market when you keep in mind that if a company’s share price goes down, it becomes more affordable to purchase and investors can more than likely anticipate that it will rise again and turn a profit.

While gold stocks are affected by some of the same factors that shape and shift the price of precious metals, they keep some distance from a direct correlation because it is possible for a gold miner and its stocks to be in a sound financial situation, even in a down market.

This is an updated version of an article first published by the Investing News Network in 2019.

Don’t forget to follow us @INN_Australia for real-time updates!

Securities Disclosure: I, Matthew Flood, currently hold no direct investment interest in any company mentioned in this article.

representations of various cryptocurrencies in coin form sitting on a laptop

What is decentralised finance and what should investors know about this space in Australia? Find out here.

DeFi, short for "decentralised finance," is a promising component of our brave new crypto world. The DeFi sector in Australia is here to stay, but what should investors know about this space?

DeFi offers an alternative to traditional financial services and institutions by bypassing banks, brokers, exchanges and other "middlemen" that serve as financial intermediaries that regulate the markets. In effect, DeFi is evolving into a parallel financial framework that facilitates and records transactions involving financial instruments and payment mechanisms chiefly related to trading and lending operations.

The DeFi market is currently expanding at an explosive rate. According to figures released by DeFi Llama, cryptocurrency investors have put up US$250 billion worth of assets as collateral in various DeFi projects, funds which are then lent out in the form of cryptocurrency loans. As more and more institutional investors enter the DeFi sector, the market is expected to expand to US$800 billion by the end of 2022.


Bitcoin and Ethereum, the world's two leading cryptocurrencies with market caps of US$882 and US$421 billion, respectively (as of the beginning of April), are digital assets whose ownership is documented in a public transaction ledger known as the blockchain. A traditional financial institution such as a bank, credit card provider or payment facilitator like PayPal maintains its own private records and uses its own servers to process transactions. Cryptocurrency transactions, by contrast, are processed on the computers of a global network of users and recorded publicly (though pseudonymously) for the entire network to see.

As currently constituted, the emerging DeFi sector provides holders of cryptocurrency the ability to bypass the world's traditional network of bank and other financial gatekeepers by means of independent, self-regulating computer programs that rely on blockchain technology.

These decentralised applications (DApps) of blockchain technology offer a more efficient and streamlined mechanism to access financial services by creating an alternative ledger system known as "distributed ledger technology" (DLT) as opposed to VISA, PayPal or other legacy digital payment services. By harnessing the power of blockchain, a new global ledger system has taken shape that relies on a global web of interconnected computers to record and tracks all transactions. Not only does DLT store such transaction data but it also identifes the parties involved in any transaction.

This allows anyone with a crypto wallet and an internet connection unlimited access to DeFi services. Users can trade currencies and move assets whenever and wherever they want and avoid antiquated and cumbersome bank transfer protocols and related fees. DeFi users are, however, required to pay "gas fee" charges for crypto transactions in many cases.

DeFi is thereby expanding the fundamental premise of digital money — bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies — by allowing individuals and companies alike to execute financial transactions by means of a new and fully transparent system.

DeFi Applications

Lending platforms

The DeFi market is currently expanding at an explosive rate. According to figures released by DeFi Llama, cryptocurrency investors have put up US$250 billion worth of assets as collateral in various DeFi projects, funds which are then lent out in the form of cryptocurrency loans.

Parallel to the expansion of the cryptocurrency market, DeFi will become increasingly able to provide loans via the various lending platforms that are popping up around the world. In effect, DeFi lending platforms are digital banks, taking money from cryptocurrency depositors and lending it out to borrowers.

Instead of traditional bank loans, the DeFi platforms rely on "smart contracts" — primarily the Ethereum blockchain — which uses computer code to authorize, execute and verify transactions.

Lending markets serve as one of the most intriguing and promising applications of DeFi by connecting borrowers to lenders of cryptocurrencies by means of platforms that enable individuals or companies to either borrow cryptocurrencies or provide crypto loans.

In order to obtain a loan, borrowers must put up collateral — usually ether, the crypto currency issued by Ethereum, the principal system on which all cryptocurrency applications are based. Borrowers tend to receive loans in the form of stablecoins pegged to traditional currencies like the dollar.

Alternatively, borrowers can post collateral in the form of bitcoin, which then gets deposited in a crypto pool that is overseen by a smart contract. Should the price of bitcoin take a precipitous fall, the smart contract automatically liquidates the collateral to protect depositors who have provided the loan funds in the form of stablecoins. Meanwhile, lenders earn money from the interest rate the platforms charge for lending out their funds.

Decentralised exchanges

Decentralised exchanges use smart contracts to enable traders to execute orders without an intermediary. Users trade directly from their wallets by exchanging one currency for another, for example Bitcoin for US dollars or euros for Ether, by means of the smart contracts behind the trading platform. Traders are solely responsible for managing and securing their funds and risk losing their holdings if they lose their private keys or send funds to the wrong addresses. The advantage of bypassing financial intermediaries and preserving anonymity is offset to a degree by the lack of security a bank or a centralized exchange provides.

Stablecoins

A stablecoin is a cryptocurrency pegged to the value of a non-crypto asset (i.e. the US dollar) that offers price stability, which in turn provides greater security for DeFi collateralized lending. Tether is one of the leading stablecoins.

Australia: Making a splash in DeFi

Australia currently ranks 12th out of 154 countries according to the Global DeFi Adoption Index published by Chainanalysis. This index uses three metrics in its assessment of DeFi adoption: on-chain cryptocurrency value received by DeFi platforms weighted by public private partnership (PPP) per capital, total retail value received by DeFi platforms and individual deposits to DeFi platforms.

Australia's DeFi sector is currently experiencing a boom led by various companies such as Synthetix (SNX), which hopes to become a decentralised version of derivatives exchange BitMEX; Maple Finance (MPL), which offers loans for crypto institutions; and newly launched tiiik, which offers a digital wallet that allows investors to earn interest on DeFi products. Other new Australian DeFi players include Thorchain, Ren and mSTABLE.

While the DeFi sector is currently in its first developmental phase much like Bitcoin in its early days, individual investors have three main ways of investing in this evolving industry. First, one can obtain cryptocurrency-based loans; second, one can earn interest by lending (staking) their crypto holds, looking to invest in DeFi coins. Block Earner, for example, is an Australian fintech outfit that provides a DeFi online savings platform, which pays 7 percent interest on deposits. Third, investors can simply invest in DeFi coins in the same way that one can purchase cryptocurrencies.

Evolving market

Investors willing to take a plunge in DeFi should be aware that the underlying volatility of the cryptocurrency markets can rattle the DeFi sector in the event of sharp declines in bitcoin, Ethereum and other cryptos. There is also the added spectre of rug pulls, a relatively rare but catastrophic form of fraud.

Rug pulls see unscrupulous DeFi developers create a new token, pair it to a leading cryptocurrency such as tether, set up a liquidity pool, and then use secret back doors encoded into the coin's smart contract to mint millions of new coins before liquidation. This was the case in 2020 when SushiSwap developer Chef Nomi cashed in his SUSHI tokens after raising over $1 billion in collateral finance, which caused the price of SUSHI to crash to near zero.

Don’t forget to follow us @INN_Australia for real-time updates!

Securities Disclosure: I, Harold Von Kursk, hold no direct investment interest in any company mentioned in this article.

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